Another name for the spiritualist, Denizard Rivail, whose doctrines were widely believed on the continent and particularly throughout France. Before converting to spiritualism, Ravail had been very interested in animal magnetism. Victorien Sardou introduced him to a spiritualistic circle in 1856 and he wrote 'Livre des Esprits' on the spirit communications received by mediums.
His doctrines were widely read, and he claimed that the names Kardec and Allen he adopted were borne by him in two of his previous incarnations. He founded the Parisian Society for Spiritualistic Studies, and he died in 1869.